独立写作审题很关键
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独立写作审题很关键

文章来源:华樱出国   发布时间:2017年02月08日   点击数:

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审题,是所有写作考试中的第一步,不论是用中文写还是用英文写。审题也是很关键的一步,却常常被人忽视。尤其是托福、雅思这类英语水平测试,因为考生的英语水平参差不齐,所以理解的题意也各不相同,很容易在写作前偏题。而有些英语水平很不错的考生最后的托福独立写作成绩不理想,也是和审题不当有很大的关系。他们只着眼于如何写出漂亮的词汇和句子。华樱外语的蒋老师对托福独立写作的审题进行了详细分析,希望能帮助到写作经常偏题的同学。
 
误区一:忽略关键词
很多同学刷了很多题,大多数题目类型都都已烂熟于心,看到题目之后总是提笔就写。其实,这种习惯藏着很大的隐患:因为粗心而忽略关键词。例如:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Advertising is the only main cause for people’s unhealthy eating habits.
 
看到这个题目,同学们立刻会开始想,有没有other reasons for unhealthy habits,想出三条如:1. People’s tight schedules do not allow them to eat at regular hours; 2. Sometimes people are eager to lose weight or to keep fit so that they go on “endless diets”; 3. Bearing heavy burden both physically and mentally, some consider eating constantly as their most effective stress reliever. 综上所述,advertising is not the only cause.
 
这个写法看起来完整,但其实犯了一个严重的错误——题目不是要我们证明it is not the only cause,而是要我们去证明it is not the only main cause。多一个“main”,意思是很不一样的。如果我们只需要证明it is not the only cause,那么找出other causes即可即例1中的写法。但是,如果我们要证明it is not the only main cause,就需要证明other causes that we mentioned are also main causes,这就需要在每一段中加上一些专门的说明。或者,更简单的办法是去证明advertising is not even a cause, 直接在每段的末尾加上advertising与该段所论述的unhealthy eating habit无关的论述即可。If it is not a cause, how can it be the only main cause? 这样一来,就不用通过证明还有其他main cause来反驳了,事实上,证明某种cause是main cause还是挺有难度的,推荐同学们用后一种方式进行论述。因此,文章还是disagree,而三段的主题句分别应该是:1、1. People’s tight schedules do not allow them to eat at regular hours, and it is obvious that they are too busy to be influenced by advertising; 2. Sometimes people are eager to lose weight or to keep fit so that they go on “endless diets”, and this is more like a result of human nature, the pursuit of beauty, but not advertising; 3. Bearing heavy burden both physically and mentally, some consider eating constantly as their most effective stress reliever, and it is quite clear that no advertising encourages them to do so.
 
 
误区二:误解关键词
有些同学则过于执着于关键词的字面意思,没能看出其背后的implication。蒋老师建议,在写文章的时候要灵活,不要拘泥于关键词的字面意思,否则理由很不好想,就算想出来也很难用英文表达。例如:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The government should spend more money on elementary school education than on university education.
 
题目的意思是说,比起投资大学教育,政府应该在小学教育上投入更多的资金。看到这个题,同学们会有不同的看法,大体来讲无非是两种——认为university education应该花更多的钱或反之。但是,大家很快会发现证明任何一种观点都是不容易的。比如说,有些同学可能会这样写:Agree. 1. Elementary school education involves more students than university education and it requires more money; 2. Colleges and universities have more sponsors than elementary schools so that the government should offer more financial support for the latter. 3. Since elementary school education is the cornerstone of university education, it deserves more money from the government.
 
上面的主题句看起来是没有问题的,然而在展开的时候困难重重——第一个点里说Pupils的数量多所以花钱多,这的确是事实,可是pupil人均所需要的经费却肯定比university students少,最关键的是,我们并没有数据作为支撑;第二点里说校友或社会人士的支持使得大学在财政方便面比小学要宽裕的多,然而,这还是一个没有数据就无法证明的观点;第三点里说elementary school education是university education的基础所以前者就应当比后者得到更多的预算,这是一个典型的逻辑错误,因此在段落展开的时候将会十分困难。A是B的基础并不意味着要为A花更多的钱。总之,钱本身就是一个可以量化的东西,如果真的以钱的多少来写这道题,在没有数据支持的情况下是很难成文的。许多同学之所以在写的时候觉得自己的文章很牵强,就是因为把该文当成了论述题,而大家要知道,论述题都是要会给出数据让我们来分析的。那么,在没有数据的情况下,这种题目该怎么写呢?找到money后面的implication很重要。其实,题目并不是要我们去讨论哪种教育应该花更多的钱,而是让我们去对比两种教育的重要性,自然地,更加重要的教育就应该花更多的钱。所以我们可以有以下论述:
 
(Main idea) I cannot agree that the government should spend more money on elementary school education than on university education, because they are equally important.
 
(Topic sentence) 1. Elementary school education prepares children for college education by teaching them how to learn and what they are supposed to learn. 2. University education helps students to be ready for the competitive job market by equip them with excellent knowledge for jobs and good communication skills.
 
(Conclusion) Since elementary school education and university education are both indispensable and irreplaceable parts of our lifelong education and they complete each other, it would be rigid to say that anyone of them deserves more money than the other.
 
以上就是华樱外语蒋老师总结的托福独立写作的审题步骤和要点。审题虽然只是托福写作中的一小步,但却很关键。在开始构思文章内容前,一定要花时间和精力审好题,为后面的写作打好基础。
 

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