文章来源：华樱外语 发布时间：2016年12月06日 点击数： 次
Paragraph 2: Economic exchange was clearly very important as the Roman army brought with it very substantial spending power. Locally a fort had two kinds of impact. Its large population needed food and other supplies. Some of these were certainly brought from long distances, but demands were inevitably placed on the local area. Although goods could be requisitioned, they were usually paid for, and this probably stimulated changes in the local economy. When not campaigning, soldiers needed to be occupied; otherwise they represented a potentially dangerous source of friction and disloyalty. Hence a writing tablet dated 25 April tells of 343 men at one fort engaged on tasks like shoemaking, building a bathhouse, operating kilns, digging clay, and working lead. Such activities had a major effect on the local area, in particular with the construction of infrastructure such as roads, which improved access to remote areas.
1. The author mentions “343 men at one fort engaged on tasks like shoemaking, building a bathhouse, operating kilns, digging clay, and working lead” in order to
O describe the kinds of tasks soldiers were required to perform as punishment for disloyalty or misdeeds
O illustrate some of the duties assigned to soldiers to keep them busy and well-behaved when not involved in military campaigns
O provide evidence that Roman soldiers had a negative effect on the local area by performing jobs that had been performed by native workers
O argue that the soldiers would have been better employed in the construction of infrastructure such as roads
Paragraph 5: This process of settling in as a community over several generations, combined with local recruitment, presumably accounts for the apparent stability of the British northern frontier in the later Roman period. It also explains why some of the forts continued in occupation long after Rome ceased to have any formal authority in Britain, at the beginning of the fifth century A.D. The circumstances that had allowed natives to become Romanized also led the self-sustaining military community of the frontier area to become effectively British.
2. Why does the author mention that “some of the forts continued in occupation long after Rome ceased to have any formal authority in Britain” ?
O To emphasize the degree to which the stability of the British northern frontier depended on firm military control
O To suggest that the Romans continued to occupy Britain even after they had formally given up the right to do so
O To support the claim that forts continued to serve an import economic function even after they ceased to be of any military use
O To describe one of the things that resulted from frontier garrisons’ becoming part of the local community over a long period
Paragraph 4: For Clements, the climax was a "superorganism," an organic entity. Even some authors who accepted the climax concept rejected Clements' characterization of it as a superorganism, and it is indeed a misleading metaphor. An ant colony may be legitimately called a superorganism because its communication system is so highly organized that the colony always works as a whole and appropriately according to the circumstances. But there is no evidence for such an interacting communicative network in a climax plant formation. Many authors prefer the term "association" to the term "community" in order to stress the looseness of the interaction.
1. According to paragraph 4, why do many authors prefer the term “association” to “community” when describing a climax plant formation?
O Because the term “association” does not suggest the presence of a tight network involving interactive communication.
O Because the term “association” indicates that the grouping is not necessarily beneficial to all members.
O Because the term “community” indicates continuing dynamic development that a climax formation does not have.
O Because the term “community” suggests an organization that has been designed for a specific purpose.
Paragraph 5: Even less fortunate was the extension of this type of thinking to include animals as well as plants. This resulted in the "biome," a combination of coexisting flora and fauna. Though it is true that many animals are strictly associated with certain plants, it is misleading to speak of a "spruce-moose biome," for example, because there is no internal cohesion to their association as in an organism. The spruce community is not substantially affected by either the presence or absence of moose. Indeed, there are vast areas of spruce forest without moose. The opposition to the Clementsian concept of plant ecology was initiated by Herbert Gleason, soon joined by various other ecologists. Their major point was that the distribution of a given species was controlled by the habitat requirements of that species and that therefore the vegetation types were a simple consequence of the ecologies of individual plant species.
2. Why does the author make the statement, “Indeed, there are vast areas of spruce forest without moose” ?
O To highlight a fact whose significance the ecologist Herbert Gleason had missed
O To propose the idea that a spruce forest is by itself a superorganism
O To emphasize that moose are not limited to a single kind of environment
O To criticize the idea of a spruce-moose biome
Paragraph 5: Isotopic analysis of shells allowed geologists to measure another glacial effect. They could trace the growth and shrinkage of continental glaciers, even in parts of the ocean where there may have been no great change in temperature—around the equator, for example. The oxygen isotope ratio of the ocean changes as a great deal of water is withdrawn from it by evaporation and is precipitated as snow to form glacial ice. During glaciations, the lighter oxygen-16 has a greater tendency to evaporate from the ocean surface than the heavier oxygen-18 does. Thus, more of the heavy isotope is left behind in the ocean and absorbed by marine organisms. From this analysis of marine sediments, geologists have learned that there were many shorter, more regular cycles of glaciation and deglaciation than geologists had recognized from the glacial drift of the continents alone.
1. In paragraph 5, why does the author include the information that the “oxygen isotope ratio of the ocean changes as a great deal of water is withdrawn from it by evaporation and is precipitated as snow to form glacial ice” ?
O To explain how scientists were able to calculate how frequently the continental ice sheets expanded and contracted
O To explain how scientists have determined that there was no great change in ocean temperatures at the equator during past glaciations
O To provide evidence that oxygen-16 has a greater tendency to evaporate than does oxygen-18
O To suggest that equatorial marine organisms absorb more heavy isotopes than do marine organisms elsewhere